Todays spotlight on Dystonia is Paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia (PKND)
PKND is a disorder characterized by episodes of dystonia and choreoathetosis. Choreoathetosis is characterized by irregular, rapid, jerky movements that may occur in association with slow, writhing motions. Episodes may last from minutes to hours and can recur multiple times per day or per month. Episodes are often triggered by alcohol, caffeine, hunger, fatigue, stress, and nicotine. The movement does not trigger an episode. The onset of the disorder can vary from early childhood to early adulthood. The disorder can potentially be disabling because it can interfere with basic activities such as chewing, swallowing, speaking, walking, and coordinating movements of the arms and hands. PNKD is caused by mutations in the MR1 gene (also called PNKD gene) and is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. In some cases, the disorder occurs randomly, for unknown reasons (sporadically). The disorder is also known as PxMD-PNKD (previously called DYT8), paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis, or Mount-Reback syndrome.